Man Up Man Down (MUMD) is a research program at the University of Michigan dedicated to promoting mental and physical health for adult Black men.  This project started in July 2009 and is an ongoing study. 

Black men with depression are less likely than both depressed White men and Black women to use mental health services. One explanation is that African American men think that they must “man up” (face problems alone) to every stressful situation. This strategy, in the extreme, can result in men “going down” with depression. It is important that African American men learn that depression is treatable and that it is to their advantage to ask for help. The Man Up Man Down (MUMD) Research Program was created as a response to this problem. The purpose of MUMD was to learn what Black men knew about depression grounded in the actual words of the men themselves. The MUMD project consists of 12 focus groups conducted across four cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Detroit, and Raleigh). 

Depression is a prevalent and painfully debilitating mental disorder. Although treatable, there are significant racial and gender differences in who gets help for depression. African Americans are less likely than White Americans to seek treatment and men are far less likely to be treated than women. In particular, African American men are the group least likely to seek help for depression. There are dire consequences associated with ignoring the problem of underutilization. Mental health professionals have been concerned about the disproportionate increase in suicide among younger African American males for more than a decade. Just as important is the increasing suicide risk among African American men in later adulthood. When left untreated, some depressed individuals recover; but many suffer unnecessarily for long periods of time. Unfortunately, too many African American men do not recognize that they may have depression; and when they do, the idea of seeking help is not widely accepted. While the aforementioned findings point clearly to a problem that needs to be addressed, they do not tell us what should be done about the fact that so many African American men think that they should “man up,” face stressful situations alone, and avoid seeking treatment for depression.

The Man up, Man down project focuses on translating and disseminating research results on underutilization of mental health services into formats and venues intended to increase awareness of treatment for depression among African American men. The project begins with focus groups conducted in four U.S. cities in order to base the depression awareness materials on the experiences of African American men. Focus groups are a particularly useful starting point precisely because they provide such rich explanatory data. The focus group findings will guide the development of culturally and gender sensitive depression awareness messages. These messages are intended to increase mental health literacy, reduce depression stigma, and identify preferred delivery channels for African American men. Potential delivery channels will include interactive websites, pamphlets, online articles/news briefs, and television/radio spots. Two new videos targeting African American men specifically will be produced based on findings from the focus group data. The strength of this approach, which is based on targeted social marketing principles, is that these messages will derive from themes (e.g., masculinity, stigma) based on the words of African American men.

Team members:  Harold Neighbors, Daphne Watkins, Wayne McCullough, Thomas LaVeist, Dann Howard, Ron Braithwaite, Cheryl Munday, and Jamie Abelson.






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Center for Research, Ethnicity, Culture, and Health
School of Public Health - University of Michigan
1415 Washington Heights, 2858 SPH I
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029
Phone: 734-647-6665 Fax: 734-763-9265

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